1.1.3. Aphid lethal paralysis virus & Big Sioux River virus

Aphid lethal paralysis virus (ALPV) is a common intestinal dicistrovirus of several major agricultural aphid pests, associated with aphid population declines (van Munster et al., 2002 Laubscher and von Wechmar, 1992; 1993). Big Sioux River virus (BSRV) is closely related to Rhopalosiphum padi virus (RhPV; Moon et al., 1998), another common intestinal Dicistrovirus that uses the plant vascular system to transmit horizontally between aphids (Gildow and D’Arcy, 1990). Both can be detected infrequently at very low background levels in adult honey bees throughout the year, with a sharp quantitative increase during late summer (Runckel et al., 2011) when bees often feed on honeydew (aphid excreta) during low nectar flows. It is unclear therefore whether these viruses are incidental or truly infectious in bees. Either of these may be related to Berkeley bee picorna-like virus (BBPV; Lommel et al., 1985), which has not yet been sequenced.