1.1.7. Chronic bee paralysis virus /satellite virus
Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV) manifests itself in adult bees through two distinct set of symptoms. One set consists of trembling of the wings and bodies and a failure to fly, causing them to crawl in front of the hive in large masses. They often have partly spread, dislocated wings and bloated bodies as well. The other set of symptoms consists of hairless, greasy black bees caused by nibbling attacks from healthy bees in the colony. They soon also become flightless, tremble and die (Bailey, 1965; Bailey and Ball, 1991; Ribière et al., 2010). The virus also infects the larval and pupal stages, can be detected in faecal material and is efficiently transmitted through contact and feeding (Bailey et al., 1983b; Ribière et al., 2010). CBPV is sometimes associated with a small “satellite” virus; chronic paralysis satellite virus (CBPSV; originally called chronic bee paralysis virus associate CBPVA), which has a unique genome and capsid protein to CBPV (Ribière et al., 2010) and is of unknown significance to symptomatology (Bailey et al., 1980; Ball et al., 1985).