4.2. What, where and when to sample

Different viruses have different infection patterns, life-stage/tissue preferences and seasonal prevalences (Table 2), and so the decision as to what bee stages to sample, when/how often to sample and where to sample depends to a large degree on the objective of the experiment/survey and on the virus studied. When the experiments/surveys are detailed and specific, the sampling regimen should be designed to suit those specific aims. However, often the same samples will be analysed for multiple viruses, or the experiments/surveys are more global in character, requiring a more consensual approach to sampling. Here are some considerations for making sampling decisions in these situations. See also the BEEBOOK paper on statistical methods (Pirk et al., 2013) for decisions on how to determine the optimal sample size and pooled samples.

4.2.3. When to sample?