4.3. Sample collection

Methods for collecting different sample types (adults vs brood; whole bees vs extracted tissues), for sample preservation (chemical and/or temperature) and for transportation (hours vs days) are described in detail in the BEEBOOK paper on molecular methods (Evans et al., 2013). Faeces may be a useful sample type for the non-destructive or repetitive sampling of the individual bees, such as queens (Hung, 2000). The general rules for sample collection are to get the samples to a freezer as quick as possible, and to keep dead, preserved or processed bee samples as cold as possible during transport.