4.3.1. Adult bees

Adult bees are usually collected from brood frames (young bees); honey frames (older bees); at the hive entrance (foragers) or in dead-bee traps (dead bees). Around 200 bees (about 20g, or a cup-full) are shaken or brushed into either a cage or ventilated box with food (live transport) or in a 1l plastic bag (cold transport). This is enough for both mite and virus analyses.