5.4. Injection propagation

Propagation by injection into pupae or adults is generally very efficient, requiring very low virus doses and concentrations to establish an infection (102-104 particles, depending on the virus). However, this high efficiency also makes propagation by injection susceptible to the amplification of any contaminating viruses, either those present in the injected inoculum or those present naturally within the bees. Extra care has to be taken therefore to confirm the purity of the propagation, after purification.

5.4.2. Adults