9.2.3.1. Sample preparation

1. Mix phosphate-buffered saline (PBS):
1.1.  0.8% NaCl,
1.2.  0.14% Na2HPO4.2H2O,
1.3.  0.02%   KH2PO4,
1.4.  0.02%   KCl,
1.5.  Adjust to pH 7.4.
2. Grind each bee in 1 ml PBS.
3. Add 300 µl chloroform.
4. Mix on a vortex.
5. Centrifuge for 3 minutes to clarify.