Standard methods for virus research in Apis mellifera.

Joachim R de Miranda1*, Lesley Bailey2, Brenda V Ball2, Philippe Blanchard3, Giles E Budge4, Nor Chejanovsky5, Yan-Ping Chen6, Laurent Gauthier7, Elke Genersch8, Dirk C de Graaf9, Magali Ribière3, Eugene Ryabov10, Lina De Smet9, Jozef J M van der Steen11.

1Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, PO Box 7044, Uppsala, 750-07 Sweden.
2AgroEcology Department, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Hertfordshire, AL5 2JQ, UK.
3Anses, Sophia-Antipolis Laboratory, Bee Diseases Unit, BP 111, Sophia Antipolis, 06902 France.
4National Bee Unit, Food and Environment Research Agency, Sand Hutton, York, YO41 1LZ, UK.
5Agricultural Research Organization, The Volcani Center, PO Box 6, Bet Dagan, 50250 Israel.
6USDA-ARS, Bee Research Lab, BARC-E Bldg 306, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA.
7Swiss Bee Research Center, Agroscope Liebefeld-Posieux (ALP), Schwarzenburgstr. 161, Bern, CH-3003 Switzerland.
8Institute for Bee Research, Friedrich-Engels-Str. 32, Hohen Neuendorf, 16540 Germany.
9Laboratory of Zoophysiology, Department of Physiology, Ghent University, Ghent, B-9000 Belgium.
10School of Life Sciences, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK.
11Plant Research International, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Business Unit Biointeractions and Plant Health, Box 16, Wageningen, 6700AA The Netherlands.

Received 27 April 2012, accepted subject to revision 19 July 2012, accepted for publication 20 February 2013.

*Corresponding author: Email: