Standard methods for wax moth research.

Authors: James D Ellis, Jason R Graham, Ashley Mortensen.

Table of contents

Authors
Summary
1. Introduction
2. Identification of greater and lesser wax moths

   2.1. Wax moth eggs
   2.2. Wax moth larvae
   2.3. Wax moth pupae
   2.4. Wax moth adults
   2.5. Wax moth mating behaviour
   2.6. Wax moth oviposition
3. Rearing wax moths
   3.1. Natural rearing method
   3.2. in vitro rearing of wax moths
   3.2. in vitro rearing of wax moths

      3.2.1. Diet
      3.2.2. Environment
      3.2.3. Containers
      3.2.4. Container sterilization
      3.2.5. Eggs
      3.2.6. Larva
      3.2.7. Pupa
      3.2.8. Adult
4. Quantification / qualification of wax moth damage and population
   4.1. Qualification of wax moth damage in honey bee colonies and stored equipment
      4.1.1. Damage to combs
      4.1.2. Galleriasis
      4.1.3. Bald brood
      4.1.4. Damage to woodenware
   4.2. Quantification of wax moth damage in honey bee colonies and stored equipment
   4.3. Quantification of wax moth population in drawn frames of comb
   4.4. Quantification of wax moth populations in whole colonies

5. Techniques associated with wax moth control
   5.1. Physiological parameters measured
   5.2. Injection of test substances into the hemocoel
   5.3. Incorporation of test compound into the wax moth artificial diet
   5.4. Comb treatment
   5.5. Fumigation control

      5.5.1. Standard crystal fumigation
      5.5.2. Controlled release of liquid or crystalline compounds
         5.5.2.1. Construction of dispersal packs
         5.5.2.2. Determination of the permeation rate
         5.5.2.3. Larval Bioassay (per dispersal packet to be tested)
      5.5.3. Ozone Treatment
         5.5.3.1. Equipment needed
         5.5.3.2. Equipment establishment
         5.5.3.3. Sample Protocol
   5.6. Gamma–ray irradiation and sterilization
   5.7. Entomopathogenic control of wax moths

      5.7.1. Infecting single greater wax moth larvae with entomopathogenic nematodes
      5.7.2. Recovery of entomopathogenic nematodes from soil using greater wax moth larvae
      5.7.3. Recovery of entomopathogenic nematodes from inoculated sand using greater wax moth larvae
   5.8. Protecting stored combs from wax moths
      5.8.1. Protecting stored combs via freezing
      5.8.2. Protecting stored combs via climate manipulation
      5.8.3. Protecting stored combs using strong colonies
6. Miscellaneous techniques
   6.1. Field collection of various wax moth life stages
   6.2. Collecting greater wax moth haemolymph

      6.2.1. Method for collecting haemolymph
      6.2.2. Avoiding prophenoloxidase (PPO) activation while collecting haemolymph
      6.2.3. Removing haemocytes from haemolymph
   6.3. Eliciting immune responses in wax moth larvae
   6.4. Alternative method for eliciting immune responses in wax moth larvae
   6.5. Collecting greater wax moth larva cuticle

      6.5.1. Complete isolation of the larval cuticle
      6.5.2. Rough isolation of the larval cuticle
   6.6. Surface sterilization of wax moth larvae
   6.7. Containment of various moth life stages

      6.7.1. Frame caging
      6.7.2. Dish caging
   6.8. Creating wax moth free combs
7. Conclusion
References