2.3. Wax moth pupae
The developmental time of greater wax moths from larvae to pupae within the cocoon ranges from 3.75 days to 6.4 days depending on temperature. Inside the cocoon, the newly formed pupa is white and becomes yellow after ~ 24 hours (Paddock, 1918). After 4 days have passed, the pupa becomes a light brown that gradually darkens, becoming dark brown by the end of pupation (Fig. 8). Pupae of the greater wax moth range in size from 5 mm to 7 mm in diameter and 12 mm to 20 mm in length (Paddock, 1918). A row of spines develops from the back of the head to the fifth abdominal segment and the bodyline curves downward (Paddock, 1918). The pupal development stage of greater wax moths varies with season and temperature from 6 to 55 days (Williams, 1997).