5.1. Physiological parameters measured

Wax moths typically are considered a secondary pest of honey bee colonies. Consequently, there are comparatively fewer investigations on wax moth control than on more significant honey bee pests such as Varroa destructor (see the BEEBOOK paper on varroa, Dietemann et al., 2013), Aethina tumida (see the BEEBOOK paper on small hive beetles, Neumann et al., 2013), Acarapis woodi (see the BEEBOOK paper on tracheal mites, Sammataro et al., 2013), etc. Most investigations on wax moth control determine the efficacy of the control based on its effects on the following measurable, physiological changes in the organism:

  • Mortality: Death of the wax moth at any life stage. Sufficient time (a few hours to a few days depending on the target control method) must be allowed in an appropriate rearing environment to determine mortality in eggs and pupae.
  • Diet consumption: The amount of diet consumed by developing larvae. It is ideal for test larvae to be housed individually if diet consumption is to be measured.
  • Changes in development: This includes weight gain (i.e. daily, weekly, per instar), developmental time (oviposition to egg hatch, instar to instar, pupation to adult emergence, and/or total time from egg to adult), successful adult emergence, etc.
  • Sterility: Daily and total fecundity of mated females.
  • Post injection paralysis:  The inability of a larva to return to a dorsal-ventral position when placed on its dorsum 30 min after injection.