Sample Protocol

  1. Expose multiple moth life stages, contained in dish containers (Section 6.7.2.), to a range of ozone concentrations (measured in mg O3/m3) for a range of timed durations.
  2. Exposure temperature may also be assessed for effect on treatment efficacy by incubating at multiple temperatures during fumigation.
  3. It is best to recreate the environment under which the treatment, when applied by beekeepers, would normally occur. For example, all moth life stages will be in and among the wax combs to be treated. So, it is best to place the dish of moths among combs, or in hive bodies as would be experienced in normal circumstances.

Considerations:  The method could be adapted to fit other forms of gaseous treatment, i.e. carbon dioxide. Ozone is acutely toxic to humans and only should be used in sealed fumigation chambers (James, 2011).