Dirk de Graaf

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InstitutionGhent University, Honeybee Valley
Postal addressKrijgslaan 281 S2
Office phone+3292648732
Job /  professional statusProfessor/Lecturer
Preferred COLOSS theme(s)   Pests & Pathogens
COLOSS Project(s)   Monitoring,BEEBOOK,Beekeeping
COLOSS Taskforce(s)   CSI Pollen
Research interestspathology
 American foulbrood
Publicationsde Graaf D.C. & Jacobs F.J. (1991). Tissue specificity of Nosema apis Zander. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 58: 277-278.
de Graaf D.C., Masschelein G., Vandergeynst F., De Brabander H.F. & Jacobs F.J. (1993). In vitro germination of Nosema apis (Microspora: Nosematidae) spores and its effect on their -trehalose/D-glucose ratio. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 62: 220-225.
de Graaf D.C., Raes H., De Rycke P.H. & Jacobs F.J. (1994). Spore dimorphism in Nosema apis (Microsporida, Nosematidae) developmental cycle. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 63: 92-94.
de Graaf D.C., Raes H., Sabbe G., De Rycke P.H. & Jacobs F.J. (1994). Early development of Nosema apis (Microspora: Nosematidae) in the midgut epithelium of the honeybee (Apis mellifera). Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 63: 74-81.
Dobbelaere W., de Graaf D.C., Peeters J.E. & Jacobs F.J. (2001). Comparison of two commercial kits for biochemical characterization of Paenibacillus larvae larvae in the diagnosis of AFB. Journal of Apicultural Research 40(1): 37-40.
Dobbelaere W., de Graaf D.C., Peeters J.E. & Jacobs F.J. (2001). Development of a fast and reliable diagnostic method for American foulbrood disease (Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae) using a 16S rRNA gene based PCR. Apidologie 32: 363-370.
Dobbelaere W., de Graaf D.C., Reybroeck W., Desmedt E., Peeters J.E. & Jacobs F.J. (2001). Disinfection of wooden structures contaminated with Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae spores. Journal of Applied Microbiology 91(2): 212-216.
de Graaf D.C., Vandekerchove D., Dobbelaere W., Peeters J.E. & Jacobs F.J. (2001). Influence of the proximity of American foulbrood cases and apicultural management on the prevalence of Paenibacillus larvae spores in Belgian honey. Apidologie 32: 587-599.
de Graaf D.C., Dauwe R., Walravens K. & Jacobs F.J. (2002). Flow cytometric analysis of lectin-stained haemocytes of the honeybee (Apis mellifera). Apidologie 33: 571-579.
de Graaf D.C., De Vos P., Heyndrickx M., Van Trappen S., Peiren N. & Jacobs F.J. (2006). Identification of Paenibacillus larvae to the subspecies level: An obstacle for AFB diagnosis. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 91: 115-123.
de Graaf D.C., Alippi A.M., Brown M., Evans J.D., Feldlaufer M., Gregorc A., Hornitzky M., Pernal S.F., Schuch D.M.T., Titera D., Tomkies V. & Ritter W. (2006). Diagnosis of American foulbrood in honey bees: a synthesis and proposed analytical protocols. Letters in Applied Microbiology 43: 583-590.
de Graaf D.C., Brunain M. & Jacobs F.J. (2008). Implementation of quality control en biosafety measurements in the diagnosis of honey bee diseases. Journal of Apicultural Research and Bee World 47 (2): 151-153.
de Graaf D.C., Brunain M., Imberechts H. & Jacobs F.J. (2008). First molecular confirmation of deformed wing virus infections of honeybees from a Belgian apiary reveals the presence of black queen cell virus and Varroa destructor virus 1. Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift 78: 101-105.
de Graaf D.C., Ritter W., Jacobs F.J., Brunain M., Imberechts H., Knapen K., Mintiens K., Van der Stede Y., Verheyden B., Aud Kari F., Boujon P., Chioveanu G., Coroian C., Formato G., Mutinelli F., Roest H.J., Titĕra D., Pernal S.F. & Knapen K. (2009). Lessons from the first international proficiency test for the detection of spores from the honey bee pathogen Paenibacillus larvae. Accreditation and Quality Assurance 14(5): 273-276.
Nguyen B.K., Mignon J., Laget D., de Graaf D.C., Jacobs F.J., van Engelsdorp D., Brostaux Y., Saegerman C., Haubruge E. (2010). Honey bee colony losses in Belgium during the 2008-9 winter. Journal of Apicultural Research 49 (4): 337-339.
Meeus I., de Graaf D.C., Jans K., Smagghe G. (2010). Multiplex PCR detection of slowly-evolving trypanosomatids and neogregarines in bumblebees using broad-range primers. Journal of Applied Microbiology 109 (1): 107-115.
Meeus I., Smagghe G., Siede R., Jans K., de Graaf D.C. (2010). Multiplex RT-PCR with broad-range primers and an exogenous internal amplification control for the detection of honeybee viruses in bumblebees. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 105 (2): 200-203.
Wilmart O., Reybroeck W., De Meulenaer B., de Graaf D.C., Nguyen B.K., Huyghebaert A., Saegerman C. (2011) Analyse du risque pose en santé animal par la presence de l’hydroxymethylfurfural dans les sirops de nourrissement des abeilles domestiques. Annales de Medecine Veterinaire 155 (2): 53-60.
Meeus I., Brown M., de Graaf D.C., Smagghe G. (2011) Effects of invasive parasites on bumble bee declines. Conservation Biology 25 (4): 662-671.
Chan Q.W.T., Cornman R.S., Birol I., Liao N.Y., Chan S.K., Docking T.R., Jackman S.D., Taylor G.A., Jones S.J.M., de Graaf D.C., Evans J.D. and Foster L.J. (2011) Updated genome assembly and annotation of Paenibacillus larvae, the agent of American foulbrood disease of honey bees. BMC Genomics 12: 450.
Hatjina F., Tsoktouridis G., Bouga M., Charistos L., Evangelou V., Avtzis D., Meeus I., Brunain M., Smagghe G., de Graaf D.C. (2011) Polar tube protein gene diversity among Nosema ceranae strains derived from a Greek honey bee health study. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 108: 131-134.
De Smet L., Ravoet J., de Miranda J.R., Wenseleers T., Mueller M.Y., Moritz R.F.A, de Graaf D.C. (2012) BeeDoctor, a versatile MLPA-based diagnostic tool for screening bee viruses. PLoS ONE 7 (10): e47953. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0047953.
de Graaf D.C., Alippi A.M., Antúnez K., Aronstein K.A., Budge G., De Koker D., De Smet L., Dingman D.W., Evans J.D., Foster L.J., Fünfhaus A., Garcia-Gonzalez E., Gregorc A., Human H., Murray K.D., Nguyen B.K., Poppinga L., Spivak M., vanEngelsdorp D., Wilkins S., Genersch E. (2013) Standard methods for American foulbrood research. In Dietemann V., Ellis J.D., Neumann P. (Eds) The COLOSS BEEBOOK, Volume II: standard methods for Apis mellifera pest and pathogen research. Journal of Apicultural Research 52(1): 51.1.11 http://dx.doi.org/10.3896/IBRA.
de Miranda J.R., Bailey L., Ball B.V., Blanchard P., Budge G., Chejanovsky N., Chen Y.-P., Gauthier L., Genersch E., de Graaf D.C., Ribière M., Ryabov E., De Smet L., van der Steen J.J.M. (2013) Standard methods for virus research in Apis mellifera. In Dietemann V., Ellis J.D., Neumann P. (Eds) The COLOSS BEEBOOK, Volume II: standard methods for Apis mellifera pest and pathogen research. Journal of Apicultural Research 52(4): 52.4.22 http://dx.doi.org/10.3896/IBRA.
Ravoet J., Maharramov J., Meeus I., De Smet L., Wenseleers T., Smagghe G., de Graaf D.C. (2013) Comprehensive bee pathogen screening in Belgium reveals Crithidia mellificae as a new contributory factor to winter mortality. PLoS ONE 8 (8): e72443. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0072443
Maharramov J., Meeus I., Maebe K., Arbetman M., Morales C., Graystock P., Hughes W.O.H., Plischuk S., Lange C.E., de Graaf D.C., Zapata N., Javier Perez de la Rosa J., Murray T.E., Brown M.J.F., Smagghe G. (2013) Genetic variability of the neogregarine Apicystis bombi, an etiological agent of an emergent bumblebee disease. PLoS ONE 8 (12): e81475. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0081475
Zirbes L., Nguyen B.K., de Graaf D.C., De Meulenaer B., Reybroeck W., Haubruge E., Saegerman C. (2013) Hydroxymethylfurfural: a possible emergent cause of honey bee mortality? Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 61: 11865-11870.
De Smet L., De Koker D., Hawley A.K., Foster L.J., De Vos P., de Graaf D.C. (2014) Effect of bodily fluids from honey bee (Apis mellifera) larvae on growth and genome-wide transcriptional response of the causal agent of American foulbrood disease (Paenibacillus larvae). PLoS ONE 9 (2): e89175. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0089175
Meeus I., Mosallanejad H., Niu J., de Graaf D.C., Wäckers F., Smagghe G. (2014) Gamma irradiation of pollen and eradication of Israeli acute paralysis virus. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 121: 74-77.
Meeus I., de Miranda J.R., de Graaf D.C., Wäckers F., Smagghe G. (2014) Effect of oral infection with Kashmir bee virus and Israeli acute paralysis virus on bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) reproductive success. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 121: 64-69.
Ravoet J., De Smet L., Meeus I., Smagghe G., Wenseleers T., de Graaf D.C. (2014) Widespread occurrence of honey bee pathogens in solitary bees. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 122: 55-58.
Ravoet J., De Smet L., Wenseleers T., de Graaf D.C. (2015) Vertical transmission of honey bee viruses in a Belgian queen breeding program. BMC Veterinary Research 11: 61.
Ravoet J., De Smet L., Wenseleers T., de Graaf D.C. (2015) Genome sequence heterogeneity of Lake Sinai Virus found in honey bees and Orf1/RdRP-based polymorphism in a single host. Virus Research 201: 67-72.
Ravoet J. Reybroeck W., de Graaf D.C. (2015) Pesticides for apicultural and/or agricultural application found in Belgian honey bee wax combs. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 94 (5): 543-548
Gamboa V., Ravoet J., Brunain M., Smagghe G., Meeus I., Figueroa J., Riano D., de Graaf D.C. (2015) Bee pathogens found in Bombus atratus from Colombia: a case study. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 129: 36-39
Schwarz R.S., Bauchan G.R., Murphy C.A., Ravoet J., de Graaf D.C., Evans J.D. (2015) Characterization of two species of Trypanosomatidae from the honey bee Apis mellifera: Crithidia mellificae Langridge and McGhee, 1967 and Lotmaria passim n. gen., n. sp. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 62: 567-583
Ravoet J., Schwarz R.S., Descamps T., Yanez O., Tozkar C.O., Martin-Hernandez R., Bartolomé C., De Smet L., Higes M., Wenseleers T., Schmid-Hempel R., Neumann P., Kadowaki T., Evans J.D., de Graaf D.C. (2015) Differential diagnosis of the honeybee trypanosomatids Crithidia mellificae and Lotmaria passim. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 130: 21-27