Marla Spivak

Back to list
InstitutionUniversity of Minnesota
Department of Entomology
Postal address1980 Folwell Ave
 219 Hodson Hall
St Paul
United States of America
Office phone612 624 4798
Mobile phone651 647 9350
Fax612 625 5299
Job /  professional statusProfessor/Lecturer,Extension Specialist
COLOSS Taskforce(s)   Sustainable bee breeding,Varroa control
Research interestssocial immunity
 propolis benefits bee health
 bee breeding
 landscapes bee nutrition
 pollen identification
PublicationsWilson MB, Spivak M, Hegeman AD, Rendahl A, Cohen JD. 2013. Metabolomics reveals the origins of antimicrobial resins collected by honey bees. PLoSOne 8(10): e77512. doi:10.1371 /journal.pone.0077512
Goblirsch M, Spivak M, Kurtti TJ. 2013. A cell-line resource derived from honey bee (Apis mellifera) embryonic tissues. PLoSOne 8(7): e69831. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0069831
Gobrlirsch M, Huang Z, Spivak M. 2013. Physiological and behavioral changes in honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) induced by Nosema ceranae infection. PLoSOne 8(3): e58165.
Danka RG, Rinderer TE, Spivak M, Kefuss J. 2013. Comments on: “Varroa destructor: research avenues towards sustainable control” J. Apic. Res. 52(2): 69-71
Jensen A B. Aronstein K, Flores, JH, Vojvodic S, Palacio, MS, Spivak M. 2013. Standard methods for fungal brood diseases research. J. Apic Res. 52(1): DOI 10.3896/IBRA.
deGraaf DC, Alippi AM, Antunez K, Aronstein KA, Behrens D, Budge G, De Koker D, De Smet L, Evans JD, Foster LJ, Funfhaus A, Garcia-Gonzalez E, Gregorc A., Human H, Murray DK, Nguyen KB, Poppinga L, Spivak M, VanEngelsdorp D, Wilkins S, Genersh E. 2012. Standard methods for American foulbrood research. J. Apic Res. 51(5): DOI 10.3896/IBRA.
Buchler R, Andonov S, Bienefeld K, Costa C, Hatjina F, Kezic N, Kryger P, Spivak M, Uzunov A, Wilde J. 2013. Queen rearing and selection. J. Apic Res. 52(1) DOI 10.3896/IBRA.
VanEngelsdorp, D, Tarpy, D, Baylis, K, Spivak , M, et al. 2012. The Bee Informed Partnership: Using beekeepers’ real-world experience to solve beekeepers’ real-world problems. Amer Entomologist 58: 116-118..
Simone-Finstrom, MD, Spivak M. 2012. Increased resin collection after parasite challenge: A case of self-medication in honey bees? PLoSOne 7(3): e34601. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0034601
Spivak M, Mader E, Vaughan M, Euliss, NH Jr. 2011. The plight of bees. Environ. Sci. & Technol.45: 34-38. *Editor’s Choice Award, ES&T Best Feature Paper.
Lee KV, Moon RD, Burkness EC, Hutchison WD, Spivak M. 2010. Practical sampling plans for Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) in Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies and apiaries. J. Econ. Entomol. 103(4): 1039-1050
Palacio MA, Rodriguez E, Goncalves L, Bedascarrasbure E, Spivak M. 2010. Hygienic behaviors of honey bees in response to brood experimentally pin-killed or infected with Ascosphaera apis. Apidologie 41: 602-612
Simone-Finstrom M, Gardner J, Spivak M. 2010. Tactile learning in resin foraging honeybees. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 64: 1609-1617.
Simone-Finstrom M, Spivak M. 2010. Propolis and bee health: the natural history and significance of resin use by honey bees. Special Issue on Bee Health: Apidologie. 41: 295–311
Oxley P, Spivak M, Oldroyd B. 2010. Six quantitative trait loci influence task thresholds for hygienic behavior in honeybees (Apis mellifera). Molecular Ecology 19: 1452-1461.
Evans J.D., Spivak M. 2010. Socialized Medicine: Individual and communal disease barriers in honey bees. J. Invert. Pathol. 103:S62-S72.
Simone M, Evans J, Spivak M. 2009. Resin collection and social immunity. Evolution. 63: 3016–3022.
Swanson J, Torto B, Kells S, Mesce K, Tumlinson J, Spivak M. 2009. Volatile compounds from chalkbrood Ascosphaera apis infected larvae elict honey bee (Apis mellifera) hygienic behavior. J. Chem. Ecol. 35: 11088-1116.
Wilson-Rich N, Spivak M, Fefferman NH, Starks PT. 2009. Genetic, individual, and group facilitation of disease resistance in insect societies. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 54: 405-23
Bastos EMA, Simone M, Jorge D, Soares AEE, Spivak M. 2008. In vitro study of the antimicrobial activity of Brazilian and Minnesota, USA propolis against Paenibacillus larvae. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 97:273-281
Ibrahim A, Reuter GS, Spivak M. 2007. Field trial of honey bee colonies bred for mechanisms of resistance against Varroa destructor. Apidologie 38: 67-76.
Arathi HS, Ho G, Spivak M. 2006. Inefficient task partitioning among nonhgienic honeybees, Apis mellifera l., and implications for disease transmission. Animal Behaviour 72: 431-438.
Evans E, Spivak M. 2006. Effects of honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) and bumblebee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) presence on cranberry (Ericales: Ericaceae) pollination. J. Econ. Entomol. 99: 614-620.
Ibrahim A, Spivak M. 2006.The relationship between hygienic behavior and suppression of mite reproduction as honey bee mechanisms of resistance to Varroa destructor Apidologie. 37: 31-40.
Gekker G, Hu S, Spivak M, Lokensgard JR, Peterson PK. 2005. Anti-HIV-1 activity of propolis in CD4+ lymphocyte and microglial cell cultures. J. Ethnopharmacology 102: 158-163.
Goode K, Huber Z, Mesce KA, Spivak M. 2005. The relationships of honey bee (Apis mellifera) behaviors in the context of octopamine neuromodulation: hygienic behavior is independent of sucrose responsiveness and foraging ontogeny. Hormones and Behavior 49: 391-397
Flores JM, Spivak M, Guiterrez I. 2005. Spores of Ascosphaera apis contained in wax foundation can pass on chalkbrood in honey bees. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 108: 141-144.
Mondragon L, Spivak M, Vandame R. 2005. A multifactorial study of the resistance of Africanized and hybrid honey bees Apis mellifera to the mite Varroa destructor over one year in Mexico Apidologie. 36: 345-358.
Gramacho KP, Spivak M. 2003 Differences in olfactory sensitivity and behavioral responses among honey bees bred for hygienic behavior. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 54: 472-479.
Spivak M, Masterman R, Ross R, Mesce KA. 2003 Hygienic behavior in the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) and the modulatory role of octopamine. J. Neurobiol. 55: 341-354.
Lapidge K, Oldroyd B, Spivak M. 2002. Seven suggestive quantitative trait loci influence hygienic behavior of honey bees. Naturwissenschaften 89: 565-568.
Haarmann T, Spivak M, Weaver D, Weaver B, Glenn T. 2002. The effects of fluvalinate and coumaphos on queen honey bees (Apis mellifera L). in two commercial queen rearing operations. J. Econ. Ent. 95: 28-35.
Spivak M, Reuter G.S. 2001 Resistance to American foulbrood disease by honey bee colonies, Apis mellifera, bred for hygienic behavior. Apidologie 32: 555-565.
Masterman R, Ross R, Mesce K, Spivak M. 2001. Olfactory and behavioral response thresholds to odors of diseased brood differ between hygienic and non-hygienic honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) J. Comp Physiol. A 187: 441-452.
Arathi HS, Spivak M. 2001 Influence of colony genotypic composition on the performance of hygienic behavior in the honey bee (Apis mellifera L). Animal Behavior 62: 57-66.
Spivak M, Reuter GS. 2001. Varroa jacobsoni infestation in untreated honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies selected for hygienic behavior. J. Econ. Entomol 94: 326-31
Arathi HS, Burns I, Spivak M. 2000. Ethology of hygienic behaviour in the honey bee, Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae): Behavioural repertoire of hygienic bees. Ethology 106: 1-15.
Masterman R, Smith B, Spivak M. 2000. M. Evaluation of brood odor discrimination abilities in honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) using proboscis extension reflex conditioning. J. Insect Behav. 13: 87-101.
Elzen PJ, Baxter JR, Spivak M, Wilson WT. 2000.Control of Varroa jacobsoni Oud. Resistant to fluvalinate and amitraz using coumaphos. Apidologie 31: 437-441.
Miyagi T, Peng CYS, Chuang RY, Mussen EC, Spivak M, Doi RH. 2000. Verification of oxytetracycline-resistant American foulbrood pathogen Paenibacillus larvae in the United States. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 75(1) 95-96.
Boecking O, Spivak M. 1999. Behavioral defenses of honey bees against Varroa jacobsoni Oud. Apidologie 30: 141-158.
Otis GW, Taylor OR, Jr, Spivak M, Winston ML, Katz SJ, Kukuk PF. 1999. Timing of mating flights of neotropical African and European honey bee queens and drones (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in eastern Venezuela. Univ. Kansas Nat. Hist. Mus. Spec. Publ. 24: 90-96.
Spivak M, Gilliam M. 1998. Hygienic behaviour of honey bees and its application for control of brood diseases and varroa mites. Part I: Hygienic behaviour and resistance to American foulbrood. Bee World 79:124-134.
Spivak M, Gilliam M. 1998. Hygienic behaviour of honey bees and its application for control of brood diseases and varroa mites. Part II: Studies on hygienic behaviour since the Rothenbuhler era. Bee World 79: 165-182.
Spivak M, Reuter GS. 1998. Performance of hygienic honey bee colonies in a commercial apiary. Apidologie. 29: 291-302.
Spivak M, Downey D. 1998. Field assays for hygienic behavior in honey bees (Apidae: Hymenoptera). J. Econ. Entomol. 91: 64-70.
Calderone NW, Wilson WT, Spivak M. 1997. Evaluation of plant extracts for control of the parasitic mites Varroa jacobsoni (Acari: Varroidae) and Acarapis woodi (Acari: Tarsonemideae) in colonies of the Western honey bee, Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) J. Econ. Entomol. 90: 1080-1086.
Spivak M. 1996. Honey bee hygienic behavior and defense against Varroa jacobsoni. Apidologie 27: 245-260.
Calderone NW, Spivak M. 1995. Plant extracts for control of the parasitic mite, Varroa jacobsoni (Acari: Varroidae), in colonies of the Western honey bee, Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 88(5): 1211-1215.
Spivak M, Gilliam M. 1993. Facultative expression of hygienic behaviour of honey bees in relation to disease resistance. J. of Apicultural Res. 32(3/4): 147-157.
Smith R-K, Spivak M, Taylor OR, Bennett C, Smith ML. 1993. Maturation of tergal gland alkene profiles in European honey bee queens Apis mellifera L. J. Chem Ecol. 19: 133-42
DeGrandi-Hoffman G, Spivak M, Martin JE. 1993. The influence of temperature on cuticular color of honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) queens. Apidologie 24: 101-108.
DeGrandi-Hoffman G, Spivak M, Martin JE. 1993. The role of thermoregulation by nestmates on honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) queen development time and color. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 86(2): 165-172..
Spivak M. 1992. The relative success of Africanized and European honey bees over a range of life-zones in Costa Rica. J. Applied Ecology 29(19):150-163.
Spivak M, Erickson E Jr. 1992. Do measurements of worker cell size reliably distinguish Africanized from European honey bees (Apis mellifera L.)? Am. Bee J. 132(4): 252-255.
Smith R-K, Spivak M,Taylor OR Jr, Bennett C, Smith ML. 1992. Chemotaxonomy of Africanized bees. Part 3: Identification of Africanized honey bee queens. Bee Science 2:93-105.
Spivak M, Zeltzer A, DeGrandi-Hoffman G, Martin J. 1992. The influence of temperature during pupation on the development time and color of queen bees. Environ. Entomol. 21(2): 364-370.
Spivak M, Conlon D, Bell W. 1991. Wind-guided landing and search behavior in blowflies and fleshflies exploiting a resource patch (Diptera: Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 84(4):447-452.
Spivak M, Castro AL, Segreda F, Ramirez W. 1989. Honey production by Africanized and European Honey Bees in Costa Rica. Apidologie 20:207-220.
Taylor OR Spivak M. 1984. Climatic limits of tropical African honeybees in the Americas. Bee World 65(1):38-47.

Book Chapters and Proceedings (refereed)
Spivak M, Boecking O. 2001. Honey bee resistance to Varroa jacobsoni mites. In: Mites of the Honey Bee ( T Webster & K Delaplane, eds). pp. 205-227. Dadant & Sons, Hamilton, IL
Spivak M. 1991. The Africanization process in Costa Rica. In: The “African” Honey Bee . ed. M. Spivak, D.J.C. Fletcher, M.D. Breed, pp. 130-148. Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado.
Spivak M, Ranker T, Taylor OR, Taylor W, Davis L. 1988. Discrimination of Africanized honey bees using cell size, behavior, morphometrics and a newly discovered isozyme polymorphism. In: Africanized Honey Bees and Bee Mites. ed. R. Page, G. Needham, M. Delfinado-Baker, C.E. Bowman, pp. 313-324. Ellis Horwood Limited, Chichester, England.

Editor - Book
Spivak M, Fletcher DJC, Breed MD, editors. 1991. The “African” Honey Bee. Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado. 450 pp.