IUCN report on alien subspecies in Europe

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Report for the IUCN on alien honey bee subspecies within the EU.

1.4. Areas within the EU where the alien sub-species is a potential threat, but not yet present

A. m. ligustica
As the sub-species is already present in all EU countries, the only areas where it could still be introduced and become a threat are small islands, where populations of native sub-species seem to be very vulnerable (see Section 3 below for details on impact).

A. m. carnica
A. m. carnica is already present in all EU countries, in a situation similar to that of A. m. ligustica. As such, the only areas where it could still be introduced and become a threat are small islands.

Full text can be found here:

https://circabc.europa.eu/ui/group/4cd6cb36-b0f1-4db4-915e-65cd29067f49/library/b5acf96a-c820-468a-b74e-2c0dd1e65861/details