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Standard methods for Apis mellifera anatomy and dissection

Summary:

An understanding of the anatomy and functions of internal and external structures is fundamental to many studies on the honey bee Apis mellifera . Similarly, proficiency in dissection techniques is vital for many more complex procedures. In this paper, which is a prelude to the other papers of the COLOSS BEEBOOK , we outline basic honey bee anatomy and basic dissection techniques.

    1. 3.1. Apparatus and materials
    2. 3.1.1. The dissecting microscope
    3. 3.1.2. Dissecting instruments
    4. 3.1.3. Reagents
    5. 3.1.4. Material and its preservation
    6. 3.1.5. Mounting bees for dissection
    7. 3.2. Dissection of the worker bee
    8. 3.2.1. The general dissection
    9. 3.2.2. The abdomen
    10. 3.2.2.1. Exposing the viscera (Plates 1, and 8A and 8B)
    11. 3.2.2.2. Displaying the alimentary canal (Plate 9)
    12. 3.2.2.3. The underlying organs (Plate 10)
    13. 3.2.2.4. Rapid removal of alimentary canal and associated glands in the abdomen
    14. 3.2.3. The thorax
    15. 3.2.3.1. Exposing the flight muscles (Plates 8A and 12)
    16. 3.2.3.2. Oesophagus and glands (Plate 9)
    17. 3.2.3.3. The nervous system in the thorax (Plate 10)
    18. 3.2.4. The head (Plates, 8, 9, 10)
    19. 3.2.4.1. Exposing the brain and other structures
    20. 3.2.4.2. Displaying the glands and antennal lobes (Plates 9, 10)
    21. 3.2.5. Lateral dissection of the worker
    22. 3.2.5.1. The head
    23. 3.2.5.2. The thorax
    24. 3.2.5.3. The abdomen
    25. 3.2.6. Dissection of laying worker (Plate 17)
    26. 3.3. Dissection of the head, all castes
    27. 3.3.1. Preparation
    28. 3.3.2. Worker’s head, from the anterior aspect (Plate 13)
    29. 3.3.2.1. The glands
    30. 3.3.2.2. The brain
    31. 3.3.3. Worker’s head, from the posterior aspect (Plate 13)
    32. 3.3.3.1. The glands
    33. 3.3.3.2. The brain and suboesophageal ganglion
    34. 3.3.4. Isolation of the retrocerebral complex
    35. 3.3.4.1. Dissection of the RCC from the head capsule
    36. 3.3.4.2. Isolation of the RCC and CA
    37. 3.3.4.3. Dissection of the brain from the head capsule
    38. 3.3.5. The head of the drone
    39. 3.3.6. The head of the queen
    40. 3.4. Dissection of the drone
    41. 3.4.1. Preparation for dissection
    42. 3.4.2. Immature drone, dissection from the dorsal aspect (Plate 14)
    43. 3.4.2.1. Exposing the viscera
    44. 3.4.2.2. The reproductive apparatus
    45. 3.4.2.3. Maturing drone (Plate 15)
    46. 3.4.2.4. Mature drone
    47. 3.4.2.5. The everted endophallus (Plate 15)
    48. 3.5. Dissection of the queen
    49. 3.5.1. Preparation
    50. 3.5.2. Dissection of the fertile queen (Plate 16)
    51. 3.5.2.1. Exposing the viscera (Plate l6A)
    52. 3.5.2.2. Displaying the reproductive organs (Plate l6B)
    53. 3.5.2.3. Weight of ovaries
    54. 3.5.2.4. Number of ovarioles
    55. 3.5.2.5. Diameter of the spermatheca
    56. 3.5.3. Dissection of the fertile queen from the ventral aspect
    57. 3.5.4. Dissection of the virgin queen (Plate 17)
    58. 3.5.5. Spermatozoa in the spermatheca
    59. 3.6. Dissection of the juvenile forms
    60. 3.6.1. Dissection of the larva (Plate 19)
    61. 3.6.2. Dissection of the prepupa
    62. 3.6.3. Pupae