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Standard use of Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques in honey bee research

Summary:

Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have been used in various fields and disciplines to summarize and analyse spatial patterns and distributions, for the purpose of understanding how geographic and non-geographic entities interact with each other over space and time. Although honey bees are directly related to and influenced by their local environment, few studies have incorporated honey bee data into GIS for the purposes of gauging these spatial relationships. This paper will briefly discuss some of the types of spatial analyses and GIS methods that have been used for bees, and also, how some methodologies developed in the nonApis bee domain could be applied to honey bee research. With this paper, we aim to stimulate spatial thinking processes and thus the future use of GIS analyses to better understand the relationships between environmental characteristics and honey bee health and abundance. We will introduce the framework and some important basic concepts of GIS, as well as provide detailed instructions for becoming familiar and comfortable in using the GIS softwares ArcGIS and Quantum GIS (QGIS) (a commercial and free GIS package) for the basics of geospatial research.

    1. 2.1. Definition
    2. 2.2. GIS framework
    3. 2.2.1. Vector data structure
    4. 2.2.2. Raster data structure
    5. 2.3. GIS functionalities
    6. 2.3.1. Database management
    7. 2.3.2. Geoprocessing and spatial analysis
    8. 2.3.3. Data visualisation and map creation
    1. 3.1. File types and extensions
    2. 3.2. Common GIS data types
    3. 3.2.1. Topographic maps
    4. 3.2.2. Aerial imagery
    5. 3.2.3. Satellite imagery
    6. 3.2.4. Digital Elevation Model (DEM)
    7. 3.2.5. Thematic vector data
    1. 4.1. Geographic coordinate systems
    2. 4.2. Projected coordinate systems
    1. 5.1. COTS GIS – ArcGIS
    2. 5.2. FOSS GIS – QGIS
    3. 5.3. Tutorial data
    1. 6.1. Main components of ArcGIS
    2. 6.1.1. ArcMap
    3. 6.1.2. ArcCatalog
    4. 6.1.3. ArcToolbox
    5. 6.2. Navigating the software
    6. 6.2.1. Help menus
    7. 6.2.2. Search window
    8. 6.2.3. Toolbars
    9. 6.2.4. General reminders, shortcuts, timesavers
    10. 6.3. Setting the coordinate system and adding data to ArcMap
    11. 6.3.1. Setting a coordinate system and saving a new map document (*.mxd)
    12. 6.3.2. Add data button
    13. 6.3.2.1. Connecting to folders
    14. 6.3.3. Importing vector and raster data
    15. 6.3.3.1. Importing XY data from text files
    16. 6.3.2.2. Importing GPS data (*.gpx files)
    17. 6.3.4. Layer organisation and navigation
    18. 6.3.5. Layer properties
    19. 6.4. Database investigations and editing
    20. 6.4.1. Queries
    21. 6.4.1.1. Select by attributes
    22. 6.4.1.2. Select by location
    23. 6.4.1.3. Manual selection
    24. 6.4.2. Creating new layers from selected data
    25. 6.4.3. Attribute table data editing
    26. 6.4.4. Add new field
    27. 6.4.4.1. Advanced table calculations
    28. 6.5. Basic vector tools
    29. 6.5.1. Clip
    30. 6.5.2. Intersect
    31. 6.5.3. Union
    32. 6.5.4. Spatial join
    33. 6.5.5. Buffer(s)
    34. 6.5.5.1. Single buffer
    35. 6.5.5.2. Multiple ring buffers
    36. 6.5.6. Summary statistics
    37. 6.5.7. Dissolve
    38. 6.5.8. Project
    39. 6.5.9. Layer to KML and import to Google Earth
    40. 6.6. Basic raster tools
    41. 6.6.1. Mosaic
    42. 6.6.2. Surface analysis
    43. 6.6.2.1. Slope
    44. 6.6.2.2. Aspect
    45. 6.6.2.3. Hillshade
    46. 6.6.2.4. Contour
    47. 6.6.3. Zonal statistics
    48. 6.6.4. Raster calculator
    49. 6.7. Format conversions
    50. 6.7.1. Vector to raster
    51. 6.7.2. Raster to vector
    52. 6.8. Spatial Statistics
    53. 6.8.1. Analysing patterns
    54. 6.8.2. Mapping clusters
    55. 6.8.3. Measuring geographic distributions
    56. 6.8.4. Modelling spatial relationships
    57. 6.9. Case study – zonal statistics with land cover properties
    58. 6.9.1. Downloading data and changing projection
    59. 6.9.2. Adding vector layer and changing document properties
    60. 6.9.3. Clipping to study area extent
    61. 6.9.4. Applying a colour map
    62. 6.9.5. Selecting and labelling land cover values
    63. 6.9.6. Conditional expressions using the raster calculator
    64. 6.9.7. Zonal statistics of land cover values within buffers
    65. 6.9.8. Joining statistical information to attribute table
    66. 6.9.9. Adding and populating a new field in attribute table
    67. 6.9.10. Visualisation of attributes using graphs and charts
    68. 6.10. Map creation
    69. 6.10.1. Data view vs. layout view
    70. 6.10.2. Symbology
    71. 6.10.3. Labels
    72. 6.10.4. Advanced symbolization
    73. 6.10.5. Final map preparation
    74. 6.10.6. North arrow, scale bar, legend, title, text
    75. 6.10.7. Drawing toolbar
    76. 6.10.8. Adding a grid
    77. 6.10.9. Exporting a map
    78. 6.10.10. Cloud mapping and ArcGIS Explorer
    1. 7.1. Main components of QGIS
    2. 7.1.1. QGIS Desktop
    3. 7.1.2. QGIS Browser
    4. 7.1.3. Plugins
    5. 7.2. Navigating the software
    6. 7.2.1. Help menu and tooltips
    7. 7.2.2. User guide and documentation
    8. 7.3. Adding data and working with different file formats
    9. 7.3.1. Setting a coordinate system and saving the new QGIS project (*.qgs)
    10. 7.3.2. Add data to the project
    11. 7.3.3. Importing vector and raster data
    12. 7.3.3.1. Add Delimited Text Layer (*.txt, *.csv)
    13. 7.3.3.2. GPS and KML data, working with different coordinate systems
    14. 7.3.4. Layer organisation and navigation
    15. 7.3.5. Layer properties
    16. 7.4. Data selection and editing
    17. 7.4.1. Spatial query and select by location
    18. 7.4.2. Select by attributes
    19. 7.4.3. Manual selection
    20. 7.4.4. Creating new layers from selected data
    21. 7.4.5. Attribute table data editing
    22. 7.4.5.1. Using the field calculator and adding geometry columns
    23. 7.4.5.2. Table manager plugin
    24. 7.5. Format conversions and projections
    25. 7.5.1. Vector to raster
    26. 7.5.2. Raster to vector
    27. 7.5.3. Reproject data to a new coordinate reference system (CRS)
    28. 7.6. Basic vector tools
    29. 7.6.1. Buffer(s)
    30. 7.6.2. Clip
    31. 7.6.3. Intersect
    32. 7.6.4. Dissolve
    33. 7.6.5. Union
    34. 7.6.6. Join attributes by location
    35. 7.6.7. Basic statistics, list unique values
    36. 7.7. Basic raster tools
    37. 7.7.1. Merge
    38. 7.7.2. Terrain analysis
    39. 7.7.2.1. Slope
    40. 7.7.7.2. Aspect
    41. 7.7.2.3. Hillshade
    42. 7.7.2.4. Contour
    43. 7.7.3. Raster calculator
    44. 7.8. Spatial statistics and scientific modelling
    45. 7.8.1. Example 1: Computing mean coordinates
    46. 7.8.2. Example 2: Nearest Neighbour Analysis and Distance matrix
    47. 7.8.3. Example 3: Computing intersections between a DEM and planes
    48. 7.9. Case study – zonal statistics with land cover properties
    49. 7.9.1. Downloading and extracting
    50. 7.9.2. Projecting data into another coordinate reference system
    51. 7.9.3. Clipping to study area extent
    52. 7.9.4. Raster layer styling and predefined colour map
    53. 7.9.5. Conditional expressions using the raster calculator
    54. 7.9.6. Zonal statistics of land cover values within buffers
    55. 7.9.7. Visualisation of attribute values
    56. 7.9.8. Mathematical operations using the field calculator
    57. 7.9.9. Joining attributes from other vector layers
    58. 7.10. Map creation
    59. 7.10.1. Layer styling and labelling
    60. 7.10.2. Print composer
    61. 7.10.3. North arrow, scale bar, legend, title, labels
    62. 7.10.4. Exporting a map
    63. 7.10.5. Cloud mapping and sharing maps online