Supported by: www.ricolafoundation.org www.evacranetrust.org www.veto-pharma.com www.vetsuisse.unibe.ch www.ibrabee.org.uk
Generic selectors
Exact matches only
Search in title
Search in content
Search in posts
Search in pages
Filter by Categories
Articles
BEEBOOK Volume I
BEEBOOK Volume II
BEEBOOK Volume III
Events
Jobs
News
Register Login

Standard methods for maintaining adult Apis mellifera in cages under in vitro laboratory condition

Summary:

Adult honey bees are maintained in vitro in laboratory cages for a variety of purposes. For example, researchers may wish to perform experiments on honey bees caged individually or in groups to study aspects of parasitology, toxicology, or physiology under highly controlled conditions, or they may cage whole frames to obtain newly emerged workers of known age cohorts. Regardless of purpose, researchers must manage a number of variables, ranging from selection of study subjects (e.g. honey bee subspecies) to experimental environment (e.g. temperature and relative humidity). Although decisions made by researchers may not necessarily jeopardize the scientific rigour of an experiment, they may profoundly affect results, and may make comparisons with similar, but independent, studies difficult. Focusing primarily on workers, we provide recommendations for maintaining adults under in vitro laboratory conditions, whilst acknowledging gaps in our understanding that require further attention. We specifically describe how to properly obtain honey bees, and how to choose appropriate cages, incubator conditions, and food to obtain biologically relevant and comparable experimental results. Additionally, we provide broad recommendations for experimental design and statistical analyses of data that arises from experiments using caged honey bees. The ultimate goal of this, and of all COLOSS BEEBOOK papers, is not to stifle science with restrictions, but rather to provide researchers with the appropriate tools to generate comparable data that will build upon our current understanding of honey bees.

    1. 2.1. Important experimental design considerations before caging adult workers in the laboratory
    2. 2.2. Independence of observations for laboratory cage experiments involving adult workers
    3. 2.3. Appropriate worker and cage replicates for laboratory experiments involving adult workers
    4. 2.4. Appropriate randomisation of study organisms for laboratory cage experiments involving adult workers
    1. 3.1. Where the response variable is not mortality during laboratory experiments involving adult workers
    2. 3.2. Where the response variable is mortality during laboratory experiments involving adult workers
    3. 3.3. Statistical software for laboratory experiments involving adult workers
    1. 4.1. Considerations for choosing and obtaining adult workers for laboratory experiments
    2. 4.1.1. Seasonal timing of adult worker collection for laboratory experiments
    3. 4.1.2. Subspecies of adult workers used for laboratory experiments
    4. 4.1.3. Age of adult workers used for laboratory experiments
    5. 4.1.4. Queen status of source colonies used to obtain adult workers for laboratory experiments
    6. 4.1.5. Strength of source colonies used to obtain adult workers for laboratory experiments
    7. 4.1.6. Health of source colonies used to obtain adult workers for laboratory experiments
    8. 4.1.7. Beekeeper management of source colonies used to obtain adult workers for laboratory experiments
    9. 4.1.8. Environment surrounding source colonies used to obtain adult workers for laboratory experiments
    10. 4.1.9. Weather before and during collection of adult workers for laboratory experiments
    11. 4.1.10. Diurnal timing of collection of adult workers for laboratory experiments
    12. 4.2. Collecting newly emerged workers for laboratory experiments
    13. 4.2.1. Considerations for choosing to use newly emerged workers for laboratory experiments
    14. 4.2.2. Obtaining newly emerged workers for laboratory experiments without caging queens
    15. 4.2.3. Obtaining newly emerged workers for laboratory experiments by caging queens
    16. 4.2.4. Obtaining newly emerged workers for laboratory experiments by in vitro rearing
    17. 4.3. Collecting adult workers of an undefined age for laboratory experiments
    18. 4.3.1. Considerations for choosing to use adult workers of an undefined age for laboratory experiments
    19. 4.3.2. Challenges associated with collecting adult workers of an undefined age for laboratory experiments
    20. 4.3.3. Collecting flying adult workers of an undefined age for laboratory experiments
    21. 4.3.3.1. Collecting flying adult workers of an undefined age for laboratory experiments using a forceps
    22. 4.3.3.2. Collecting flying adult workers of an undefined age for laboratory experiments using a container
    23. 4.3.3.3. Collecting flying adult workers of an undefined age for laboratory experiments using an entrance trap
    24. 4.3.3.3.1. Bologna Trap description for collecting adult workers for laboratory experiments
    25. 4.3.3.3.2. Collecting flying adult workers of an undefined age for laboratory experiments using the Bologna Trap
    26. 4.3.4. Collecting intra-hive adult workers of an undefined age for laboratory experiments
    27. 4.4. Recommendations for choosing and collecting adult workers for laboratory experiments
    1. 5.1. Types of cages in which to maintain adult workers in the laboratory
    2. 5.2. Choosing a suitable cage to maintain adult workers in the laboratory
    3. 5.2.1. Minimum criteria for frame and hoarding cages in which to maintain adult workers in the laboratory
    4. 5.2.2. Supplementary frame and hoarding cage materials to be used when maintaining adult workers in the laboratory
    5. 5.2.3. Minimum criteria for isolation cages in which to maintain adult workers in the laboratory
    6. 5.3. Suitable cages in which to maintain adult workers in the laboratory
    7. 5.3.1. Example of a frame cage in which to maintain adult workers in the laboratory
    8. 5.3.2. Examples of hoarding cages in which to maintain adult workers in the laboratory
    9. 5.3.3. Examples of isolation cages in which to maintain adult workers in the laboratory
    1. 6.1. Regulation of biophysical properties within colonies
    2. 6.2. Temperature
    3. 6.2.1. Honey bee intra-hive temperature requirements
    4. 6.2.2. Recommendations for incubator temperature for maintaining adult workers in the laboratory
    5. 6.3. Relative humidity
    6. 6.3.1. Honey bee intra-hive relative humidity requirements
    7. 6.3.2. Regulating incubator relative humidity for maintaining adult workers in the laboratory
    8. 6.3.2.1. Regulating incubator relative humidity for maintaining adult workers in the laboratory using an open water basin
    9. 6.3.2.2. Regulating incubator relative humidity for maintaining adult workers in the laboratory using a saturated salt solution
    10. 6.3.2.2.1. Criteria for using saturated salts to regulate incubator relative humidity for maintaining adult workers in the laboratory
    11. 6.3.2.2.2. Choosing appropriate saturated salts for regulating incubator relative humidity for maintaining adult workers in the laboratory
    12. 6.3.2.2.3. Preparing a saturated salt solution for regulating incubator relative humidity for maintaining adult workers in the laboratory
    13. 6.3.3. Monitoring and recording incubator relative humidity when maintaining adult workers in the laboratory
    14. 6.3.4. Recommendations for incubator relative humidity for maintaining adult workers in the laboratory
    15. 6.4. Light
    16. 6.4.1. Natural honey bee light conditions
    17. 6.4.2. Recommendations for incubator light conditions for maintaining adult workers in the laboratory
    18. 6.5. Ventilation
    19. 6.5.1. Honey bee ventilation requirements
    20. 6.5.2. Recommendations for incubator ventilation with ambient air for maintaining adult workers in the laboratory
    1. 7.1. Nutritional requirements of worker honey bees
    2. 7.2. Carbohydrates
    3. 7.2.1. Types of carbohydrates to provide to caged adult workers in the laboratory
    4. 7.2.1.1. Providing honey to caged adult workers in the laboratory
    5. 7.2.1.2. Providing sucrose solution to caged adult workers in the laboratory
    6. 7.2.1.3. Providing sucrose paste to caged adult workers in the laboratory
    7. 7.2.2. Feeding devices for providing carbohydrates to caged adult workers in the laboratory
    8. 7.2.3. Measuring carbohydrate consumption by caged adult workers in the laboratory
    9. 7.2.4. Replenishing carbohydrates provided to caged adult workers in the laboratory
    10. 7.2.5. Recommendations for providing carbohydrates to caged adult workers in the laboratory
    11. 7.3. Proteins
    12. 7.3.1. Types of proteins to provide to caged adult workers in the laboratory
    13. 7.3.1.1. Providing bee bread to caged adult workers in the laboratory
    14. 7.3.1.2. Providing corbicular pollen to caged adult workers in the laboratory
    15. 7.3.1.2.1. Collecting and storing corbicular pollen to feed to caged adult workers in the laboratory
    16. 7.3.1.3. Providing pollen substitutes to caged adult workers in the laboratory
    17. 7.3.2. Feeding devices for providing proteins to caged adult workers in the laboratory
    18. 7.3.3. Measuring protein consumption by caged adult workers in the laboratory
    19. 7.3.4. Replenishing proteins provided to caged adult workers in the laboratory
    20. 7.3.5. Recommendations for providing proteins to caged adult workers in the laboratory
    21. 7.4. Lipids, minerals, and vitamins
    22. 7.5. Water
    23. 7.6. Food sterilisation and detoxification
    24. 7.6.1. Pathogens and environmental contaminants found in bee products
    25. 7.6.2. Sterilising bee products to destroy pathogens
    26. 7.6.2.1. Sterilising bee products to destroy pathogens using radiation
    27. 7.6.2.2. Sterilising bee products to destroy pathogens using temperature
    28. 7.6.3. Detoxifying bee products to destroy chemicals
    29. 7.6.4. Recommendations for sterilising and detoxifying bee products fed to caged adult workers in the laboratory
    30. 7.7. Controlling for water evaporation from food provided to caged adult workers in the laboratory
    31. 7.8. Feeding tests using caged adult workers in the laboratory
    32. 7.8.1. Starving caged adult workers in the laboratory prior to performing a feeding test
    33. 7.8.2. Feeding a liquid test substance to individual adult workers in the laboratory
    34. 7.8.3. Feeding a liquid test substance to groups of caged adult workers in the laboratory
    35. 7.8.4. Feeding a solid test substance to groups of caged adult workers in the laboratory
    36. 7.8.5. Recommendations and considerations for oral exposure of a test substance to caged adult workers in the laboratory
    1. 8.1. Maintaining queens under in vitro laboratory conditions
    2. 8.2. Maintaining drones under in vitro laboratory conditions