2.2.4. Adults

In the hive, SHB are regularly found everywhere, where they can hide from bees or in areas of the hive with low bee densities, but seem to prefer bottom boards (up to 40% of the hive SHB population, Neumann and Hoffmann, 2008). Most SHBs are prevented from freely roaming the hive because honey bees defend against SHBs by chasing and corralling them into confinement sites (Neumann et al., 2001c; Ellis, 2005). Beekeepers working a colony often open these confinement sites, which sets the beetles free and running over the hive material. Nevertheless, adult SHBs are often notoriously difficult to spot during colony surveys due to their dark coloration and their tendencies to avoid sunlight and hide in corners or underneath material. Outside of the hives, adult SHBs can often be spotted in honey houses and underneath hives, pending local beetle population density and sanitation efficacy of the respective beekeeper(s) (Spiewok et al., 2007; 2008). Besides hives and apicultural facilities adult SHBs have rarely been reported (e.g. in fruit buckets, Buchholz et al., 2008).