3.2.2. Investigating SHB oviposition behaviour and bee hygienic responses to SHB eggs and young larvae

Adult SHB females will oviposit in cracks and crevices around the honey bee nest (Fig. 1, Lundie, 1940; Neumann and Härtel, 2004). Occasionally, the females will bite holes in the capping and/or side of brood cells, insert their ovipositor into the hole, and oviposit on the bee developing in the cell (Ellis et al., 2003a; 2003c; 2004d; Ellis and Delaplane, 2008). In response, adult worker honey bees can detect SHB eggs/young larvae present in capped brood cells, uncap the cell, and remove the brood and/or SHB eggs/larvae (termed hygienic behaviour). A number of methods have been developed to facilitate studying SHB oviposition behaviour and the resulting honey bee hygienic responses to the behaviour.