3.2.3.2. Counting the number and distribution of beetles in freshly-killed colonies

A more accurate approach for counting SHB is to examine beetles in freshly-killed colonies (modified from Ellis et al., 2003a; Neumann and Hoffmann, 2008; Schäfer et al., 2011). One can, presumably, find 100% of the beetles inhabiting the nest if all the beetles and bees are dead. However, these methods are fatal to the colony and are useful only under certain circumstances. One of the following methods can be used to conduct absolute counts of SHB in colonies depending on what data are required and what facilities are available.