interactive stressors

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Flupyradifurone, sulfoxaflor and azoxystrobin disrupt the gut microbiota of honey bees and increase bacterial pathogens

The gut microbiome plays an important role in bee health and disease. But it can be disrupted by pesticides and in-hive chemicals, putting honey bee health in danger. We used a controlled and fully crossed laboratory experimental design to test the effects of a 10-day period of chronic exposure to field-realistic sublethal concentrations of two…