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Acaricide flumethrin-induced sublethal risks in honeybees are associated with gut symbiotic bacterium Gilliamella apicola through microbe-host metabolic interactions

Flumethrin is one of the few acaricides that permit the control of Varroa disease or varroosis in bee colonies. However, flumethrin accumulates in hive products. We previously discovered that sublethal doses of flumethrin induce significant physiological stress in honeybees (Apis mellifera L.), however its potential impacts on the honeybee gut microenvironment remains unknown. To fill…

Flupyradifurone, sulfoxaflor and azoxystrobin disrupt the gut microbiota of honey bees and increase bacterial pathogens

The gut microbiome plays an important role in bee health and disease. But it can be disrupted by pesticides and in-hive chemicals, putting honey bee health in danger. We used a controlled and fully crossed laboratory experimental design to test the effects of a 10-day period of chronic exposure to field-realistic sublethal concentrations of two…