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The Insecticide Imidacloprid Decreases Nannotrigona Stingless Bee Survival and Food Consumption and Modulates the Expression of Detoxification and Immune-Related Genes

Stingless bees are ecologically and economically important species in the tropics and subtropics, but there has been little research on the characterization of detoxification systems and immune responses within them. This is critical for understanding their responses to, and defenses against, a variety of environmental stresses, including agrochemicals. Therefore, we studied the detoxification and immune…