Host-pathogen interaction

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Impact of microorganisms and entomopathogenic nematodes used for plant protection on solitary and social bee pollinators

Abstract Pollinating bees are stressed by highly variable environmental conditions, malnutrition, parasites and pathogens, but may also by getting in contact with microorganisms or entomopathogenic nematodes that are used to control plant pests and diseases. While foraging for water, food, or nest material social as well as solitary bees have direct contact or even consume…