5.3.2. Stimuli preparation

To prepare a stimulus for testing in assays, potential solvent effects on the living honey bee used as a surrogate queen can be a challenge. The stimulus must dissolve in a solvent that is not too volatile. Different solvents such as methanol (Kaminsky et al., 1990), ethanol (Katzav-Gozansky et al., 2003), dichloromethane (Wossler and Crewe, 1999) and isopropanol (Kocher et al., 2009) can be  used for stimuli presentations on the glass, but for living workers, ethanol is recommended  (Katzav-Gozansky et al., 2003). Irrespective of the solvent used, best results can be obtained by preparing the lure just prior to the bioassay.