2.3.1. Database management

A GIS database is used to store, create, organize, manipulate, and query spatial and their linked non-spatial datasets (Burrough and McDonnell, 1998). GIS facilitates the link between geographic and non-geographic data and enables the comparison and assessment of various data types (Rigaux et al., 2002). Compared to traditional (non-spatial) databases (e.g. those without geographic coordinates), geographic databases make explicit locational distinctions for each dataset stored in the database, that is, all geographic information is linked to a location on the earth’s surface through coordinates (Arctur and Zeiler, 2004).