Biotic and Abiotic Stresses on Honeybee Health

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Honeybees are the most critical pollinators providing key ecosystem services that underpin crop production and sustainable agriculture. Amidst a backdrop of rapid global change, this eusocial insect encounters a succession of stressors during nesting, foraging, and pollination. Ectoparasitic mites, together with vectored viruses, have been recognized as central biotic threats to honeybee health, while the spread of invasive giant hornets and small hive beetles also increasingly threatens colonies worldwide. Cocktails of agrochemicals, including acaricides used for mite treatment, and other pollutants of the environment have been widely documented to affect bee health in various ways. Additionally, expanding urbanization, climate change, and agricultural intensification often result in the destruction or fragmentation of flower-rich bee habitats. The anthropogenic pressures exerted by beekeeping management practices affect the natural selection and evolution of honeybees, and colony translocations facilitate alien species invasion and disease transmission. In this review, the multiple biotic and abiotic threats and their interactions that potentially undermine bee colony health are discussed, while taking into consideration the sensitivity, large foraging area, dense network among related nestmates, and social behaviors of honeybees.