sublethal concentrations

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Sublethal effects of herbicides clethodim, haloxyfop-P-methyl, and their mixture on honey bee health

Herbicides are the most frequently used pesticides, accounting for more than 60% of all pesticides used in agriculture around the world. Clethodim (CTD) (Vixtol Super® 24% EC), haloxyfop-p-methyl (HFM) (Gallant Super® 10.8% EC), and their mixture (CTD (15%) + HFM (7.5%) (Fine® 22.5% EC) are among the most commonly used post-emergence graminicides in Egypt and worldwide. However,…