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Chronic exposure to a field‑realistic concentration of Closer® SC (24% sulfoxaflor) insecticide impacted the growth and foraging activity of honey bee colonies

The effects of sulfoxaflor on various pollinators have long been debated. However, there have been few in-hive studies on sulfoximines, and the effects on honey bee colony growth and foraging activity are unknown. Here, we calculated the LC50 of Closer® 24% suspension concentrate (SC) using honey bee foragers and then assessed the impacts of chronic…