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Lethal, sublethal, and combined effects of pesticides on...

Abstract Multiple stressors threaten bee health, a major one being pesticides. Bees are simultaneously exposed to multiple pesticides that can cause both lethal and sublethal effects. Risk assessment and most research on bee health, however, focus on lethal individual effects. Here, we performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis that summarizes and re-interprets the available…

Bee Pollen: Clinical Trials and Patent Applications

Bee pollen is a natural cocktail of floral nectar, flower pollen, enzymes, and salivary secretions produced by honeybees. Bee pollen is one of the bee products most enriched in proteins, polysaccharides, polyphenols, lipids, minerals, and vitamins. It has a significant health and medicinal impact and provides protection against many diseases, including diabetes, cancer, infectious, and…

Temporal increase of Varroa mites in trap frames...

Abstract Varroa mites are highly attracted to drone brood of honey bees (Apis mellifera), as it increases their chance of successful reproduction. Therefore, drone brood removal with trap frames is common practice among beekeepers in Europe and part of sustainable varroa control. However, it is considered labour-intensive, and there are doubts about the effectiveness of…

How can we measure the accuracy of daily...

Automated bee counters have evolved and become more versatile over the last hundred years. To date, however, there is no method for standardized validation of counting accuracy and thus no reliable data on daily bee losses or background mortality in bee colonies. Such data, however, are urgently needed by regulators to establish future guidelines for…

Semi-natural habitats promote winter survival of wild-living honeybees...

Abstract The diversity of endemic honeybee subspecies and ecotypes is at risk in Europe because modern apiculture promotes only a small number of honeybee strains. A crucial step for the conservation of honeybee diversity is the assessment of the status of remaining wild populations and their limiting factors. Here we present a two-year census of native, wild-living honeybees inhabiting power poles…