semi-field experiment

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Chronic in‑hive exposure to a field‑relevant concentration of...

Sulfoxaflor (SULF), a well-known alternative for the banned neonicotinoids, is not environmentally persistent, yet numerous studies using field-realistic levels have demonstrated its detrimental impact on honey bee colonies. Despite this, even just a limited number of studies have addressed its residue-level effects on the physiological and immunological biomarkers of foraging honey bees in semi-field conditions.…