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Origin of antimicrobial properties of propolis

Abstract Natural honey bee products, especially propolis are well known for their biological properties. However, less well known are the impact of propolis’ single phenolic substances and variation across different landscapes, geographic locations and botanical origins. Here, we determined the chemical composition of propolis samples collected in different geographic areas of Romania with a continental…

Microsporidian Nosema neumanni

Abstract The microsporidium Nosema neumanni n. sp., a new parasite of the honeybee Apis mellifera is described based on its ultra-structural and molecular characteristics. Structures resembling microsporidian spores were found by microscopic examination of honeybees from Uganda. Molecular confirmation failed when PCR primers specific for Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae were used, but was successful…

Trueness and precision of the real-time RT-PCR method

Abstract The Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV) is the aetiological agent of chronic bee paralysis, a contagious disease associated with nervous disorders in adult honeybees leading to massive mortalities in front of the hives. Some of the clinical signs frequently reported, such as trembling, may be confused with intoxication syndromes. Therefore, laboratory diagnosis using real-time PCR to…

A pan-European epidemiological study reveals

Abstract Reports of honey bee population decline has spurred many national efforts to understand the extent of the problem and to identify causative or associated factors. However, our collective understanding of the factors has been hampered by a lack of joined up trans-national effort. Moreover, the impacts of beekeeper knowledge and beekeeping management practices have…

A scientific note on using large mixed sperm samples in instrumental insemination of honeybee queens

Abstract In order to produce such ‘custom design’ colonies, it will however be necessary to reliably reproduce suitable sperm mixes to inseminate the queens. Using individual drones to inseminate a queen will be insufficient. Another queen will be inseminated with a set of semen from different drones. Hence, no single colony will have identical fathers…

Achromobacter eurydice, a Gram-variable pleomorphic bacterium associated with European foulbrood

Abstract Honeybees are prone to parasite and pathogen infestations/infections due to their social colony life. Bacterial pathogens in particular lead to destructive infections of the brood. European foulbrood is caused by the bacterium Melissococcus plutonius in combination with several other Gram-positive bacteria (Achromobacter eurydice, Bacillus pumilus, Brevibacillus laterosporus, Enterococcus faecalis, Paenibacillus alvei, Paenibacillus dendritiformis) involved as secondary invaders following the initial infection.…

Impacts of sub-lethal doses of amitraz and tau-fluvalinate on parameters of honey bee workers

Abstract There are various chemicals available for the control of Varroa mites from honey bee colonies including amitraz and tau-fluvalinate. The optimum dose of these chemicals should give the highest Varroa control efficacy with minimal negative impacts on honey bees. The high doses are expected to have destructive impacts on honey bees. However, the impacts…

Spring mortality in bees in northeastern Italy: detection of pesticides and viruses in dead bees

Abstract In spring there is often a rise in honey bee mortality incidents. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential correlation, in the reported incidents, between exposure to pesticide treatments and virus infections. Here we summarize the situation in northeastern Italy during spring 2014, evaluated by monitoring 150 active ingredients and three honey bee…